detailed map of Andhra Pradesh and neighboring regions
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Physical Map Of Andhra Pradesh
The state has the second longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the states of India, second only to Gujarat. It borders Telangana in the northwest, Chhattisgarh in the North, Odisha in the northeast, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). According to 2011 census, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The new capital of Andhra pradesh is in Guntur District east of Guntur City. and will be developed under a new Capital Region Development Authority. As per Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years.
There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema and hence, the two regions are more often referred as Seemandhra by the news media. There are 13 districts with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion. Guntur, Nellore, Kurnool, Tirupati, Kakinada , Rajahmundry , Ongole and Eluru are other important cities.
The state is endowed with a variety of physio-graphic features ranging from Eastern Ghats, Nallamala Forest, Coastal plains to deltas of two major rivers of Krishna and Godavari. The state is the largest producer of rice in India, and hence, it is nicknamed as The Rice Bowl of India. Telugu, which is one of the classical languages in India is the official language of the state. It is also rich in culture with various pilgrimage destinations of importance like Tirumala temple, alongside a host of historical monuments to the tourists.
History Of Andhra Pradesh
The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra. The puranas refer to Satavahanas as Andhra Bhrityas. The Purāṇas list 30 Andhra rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well. Satavahanas made Amaravati as their capital.
Simuka (c.230–207 BCE) After becoming independent around 230 BCE, Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered the present-day Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh (including Malwa). He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his state to the present day Andhra Pradesh. Later, Simuka made Srikakulam as his capital.
Satakarni (c.180–124 BCE)
The Andhras trace their history to the vedic age. Andhra was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig veda, Andhras left the "northern land of the Aryans" and migrated to South India.
The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century
His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said to have ruled for 56 years. The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the fourth century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the third century BCE, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land
Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundins were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.
The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull of Shiva).
The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.
Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the seventeenth century.
In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
Main article: Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for 10 years for both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India. The formation of a new state named Telangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.
Geography Map Of Andhra Pradesh
|Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is bestowed with two mighty river systems of Krishna and Godavari. Its varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamallas to the shores of Bay of Bengal supports varied ecotypes, rich diversity of flora and fauna. The state has two regions Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. Lambasingi (or Lammasingi), a village in the Chintaplli Mandal of Vishakapatnam district is situated at 1000 meters above the sea level. It is the only place in South India which has snowfall and is also nicknamed as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh. Throughout the year the temperature here ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2. The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces. They are
- Deccan Plateau
- Central Plateau
- Eastern Highland
- East Coastal Plains
Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. These ghats has rich biological diversity with wide variety of plants, birds and lesser forms of animal life. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous type with a mixture of Teak, Terminalias, Dalbergias, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus etc. The State possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudam etc.
The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river Godavari and Krishna support rich mangrove forests with Fishing Cat and Otters as key stone species.
RailNework Map Of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km (3,135 mi) and have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the state alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in eastern ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under South Central Railway zone with Vijayawada, Guntur and Guntakal divisions. The East Coast Railway zone serves the north coastal districts.
Waltair Railway Division under ECoR zone, is fourth largest revenue earning division in India. Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of busiest railway junctions in India.
- Amaravati Express
- Andhra Pradesh Express
- Andhra Pradesh Sampark Kranti Express
- Charminar Express
- Devagiri Express
- East Coast Express (India)
- Falaknuma Express
- Godavari Express
- Golconda Express
- Goutami Express
- Hussainsagar Express
- Hyderabad Mumbai Express
- Krishna Express
- Pinakini Express
- Padmavati Express
- Palnadu Express
- Janmabhoomi Express
- Rajdhani Express – Secunderabad
- Ratnachal Express
- Rajkot Secunderabad Express
- Satavahana Express
- Sabari Express
- Narasapur Express
- Simhapuri Express
- Vijayawada–Chennai Jan Shatabdi
- Tungabhadra Express
- circar express
- Narayanadri Express
Road Map Of Andhra Pradesh
Roads in Andhra Pradesh comprises National Highways and state highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.
The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.
The network connects cities, towns and villages in the state. Every town has a Bus Depot, which have administration to plan and oversee the operations. It operates in the all cities and towns of Andhra Pradesh. It also operates to the neighboring states as per the agreement reached with the respective state bus corporations of Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry, Maharashtra, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Goa.
APSRTC serves about 14 million passengers every day.
- Number of buses (As on 31-05-2014 ) :22,459
- Number of employees ( As on 31-05-2014 ) : 122,191
- Number of depots : 216
- Number of regions/zones : 23/7
- Number of bus shelters : 1881
- Total bus stations : 778
- No. of passengers transported daily (up to Apr 2013) : 15.36 million
- Total number of routes (April 2013) : 7736
- Zonal Work Shops : 7
- Bus Body Building Unit : 1
- Tire Retreading Shops : 7
- Printing Press : 1
- Transport Academy : 1
- Staff Training Colleges : 6
- Dispensaries / Hospitals :35
Air Network Map Of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has airports which have access to international flights, domestic and some non used airstrips for emergency purposes. All these airports are under the governance of Airport Authority of India.
Andhra Pradesh Airports provides services to tourists and the state population commuting to different parts of the state. Vishakhapatnam Airport gets the major attention for commercial reasons. Tirupati Airport and Puttaparthi Airport are the major airports which serve major pilgrim population. Other in the state with domestic flights are located at Rajahmundry, Vijayawada which are in operation
List of airports
||Sri Sathya Sai Airport
||Airports Authority of India
||Airports Authority of India
||Airports Authority of India
||Airports Authority of India
||Naval Air Station
||Airports Authority of India
||No scheduled commercial air service
Business And Economy Map Of Andhra Pradesh
Main article: Economy of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has a very diverse geography which leads to a very diverse economy. As many as 9 of the 13 districts has sea coast along Bay of Bengal which has created manufacturing and export centric industry. The fertile river plans in the delta regions of major peninsular rivers of Godavari & Krishna are rich with agro based industries and the vast mineral deposits found in the districts of Rayalaseema, Eastern Gats and neighboring states has lead to large scale ore exports.
The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh was 2359.3 billion (US$38 billion) in 2012-13. The growth in state was mainly driven by the agriculture, industry and services sectors. The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$8.8 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$8.2 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) with a total of 1305.87 billion (US$21 billion). In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there are several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.
Economy of the state is mainly based on Agriculture and Livestock. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as Rice Bowl of India. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Agriculture is the main occupation and 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state.
Besides rice, farmers of this state also grow wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
Livestock is also another profitable business which involves, rearing of cattle in an enclosed area for commercial purposes.
Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. Most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013-14.
Visakhapatnam has emerged as a major industrial center and has major public and private sector establishments producing large scale industrial goods ranging from steel, metals, petroleum, polymers, fertilizers, heavy engineering equipment and also facilitates ship building, ports & fishing. Kakinada has multiple fertilizer refineries and produces large scale of natural gas from the offshore of KG basin. Kakinada also exports seafood and related products and produces agricultural products like rice and corn, edible oils, oilmeals, processed food products, chemicals, biofuel etc. Vijayawada is famous for processing of agricultural products, automobile body building, hardware, textile, consumer goods and small scale industries. Andhra Pradesh has one major port at Visakhapatnam and several medium sized ports like Gangavaram, Kakinada & Krishnapatnam; which account to large export of cargo traffic. They are several large power plants and major ones are established at Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Kakinada, Krishnapatnam and Cuddapah.
The state is also emerging in – information technology and biotechnology. Visakhapatnam has emerged as the main hub of industrialization.The IT/ITES revenues of the city alone is at 14.45 billion (US$230 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati are also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1152.6 million (US$19 million) crore while Tirupati with 693 million (US$11 million) and Kakinada with 615.4 million (US$10 million).
Other key sectors include, Pharma, Power, Banking & Financial, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather and Tourism also constitute in the economy of the state.
Culture Of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh's cultural history can be summarized under the sections of Art, Architecture, Literature, Cuisine, Clothing and Religion/Philosophy.
Architecture: There are three distinct and rich architectural traditions in Andhra Pradesh. The first traces back to the building of the legendary city of Amaravathi under Satavahanas. This unique style of architecture emphasizes the use of intricate and abstract sculpture with inspiration from religious themes. The second tradition draws on the enormous granite and lime stone reserves of the region and is reflected in the various temples and forts built over a very long period of time. The Temples and the ruins of Warangal stand as examples to this tradition.
Art: Annamayya, Tyagaraja, Kuchipudi summarize the rich artistic traditions of Andhra Pradesh. Contributions of Annamacharya and Tyagaraja to the "grammar of sound" made Telugu language the preferred language of composition for Carnatic Music and made Andhra Pradesh the mother of all modern music. Their influence not only on Carnatic but global classical music and the organisation of sound as a medium of emotional resonance has no parallel in human history. Kuchipudi as a refinement of the ancient Tamil art of Bharathanatyam, and in the context of the unique religious and cultural traditions of Andhra Pradesh stands on par with all the great global traditions of Classical Dance.
Literature: As a recognized ancient language, Telugu has a rich and deep literary culture. Nannaya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada, Srinatha, Pothana, Molla (poet), and Tarikonda Venkamamba made Telugu language "The Italian of the East" - lingua franca for religious, musical composition and philosophy. The contributions of Charles Phillip Brown, Gurram Jashuva, Sri Sri (writer) and Viswanatha Satyanarayana made Telugu a vibrant and evolving modern language. The contributions of various Telugu/Tamil/Sanskrit grammarians to the formalization of English Grammar gave Telugu Literary traditions a truly global reach.
Cuisine: Andhra Pradesh culinary traditions are some of the richest in the world. Bandhar Laddu, Avakaya, Gongura, Pulusu, pappu charu, jonna kudu, bobbattu, kaza, arisa ..etc. draw on unique spices and rich fruit and vegetable harvests of the region. Various sauces and ancient bread making techniques that use a very diverse and rich variety of pulses are a testament to ancient Telugu culinary innovation. It is rumored that Roman king Nero lamented Romans paying more to the Chili farmers of Andhra Pradesh than to Roman treasury as taxes during the effort to rebuild Rome after the great fire. It is documented that he banned all imports from Andhra Pradesh during Rome rebuilding era. Andhra Pradesh spice traders and their ancient global trading traditions are considered the precursors to modern option-and-derivatives pricing models for commodities. Rich wine making traditions are evident in the Taati kallu and Etha Kallu produced by the region to this day.
Clothing/Fashion: Andhra Pradesh is home to some of the finest historical cloth making/fashion and dying traditions of the world. Its rich cotton production, with its innovative plant dye extraction history stand next to its diamond mining, pearl harvesting and jewelry traditions to form an impressive fashion tradition that has stood the test of time. The ancient Golconda mine is the mother of the numerous legendary gems such as the Koh-i-Noor and Hope Diamond. Andhra Pradesh had a virtual monopoly in the global jewelry industry till 1826 (founding of the diamond mines in Rhodisia - Africa) and eight of the 10 most valuable jewelry pieces on earth today trace their history back to Andhra Pradesh. Langa-Voni (Half saree), Sarees made in Kalamkari, Bidri, Nirmal paintings, fascinating weaves from Pochampalli, Gadwal, Venkatagiri are the result of this time tested (3000 year) fashion tradition. Vaddaanam, Aravanke, Kashulahaaram, Buttalu and various standard gold jewelry designs are fine examples of this continuously evolving ancient tradition.
Religion and Philosophy: These contributions can be classified into four distinct eras. Ancient Hindu traditions of Andhra Pradesh, Medieval Buddhist traditions, Modern Islamic-Hindu fusion traditions and the currently emerging Hindu-Christian fusion traditions. Dharanikota, Nagarjuna Konda monasteries and the associated literary contributions stand as a testaments to Andhra Pradesh's central role in the evolution of Ashokan Buddhism. Tirupati, the associated religious traditions of Lord Venkateswara as a personification of the merger of various Shivite and Vaishavite Hindu traditions stands as a testament to the rich and progressive religious-philosophical schools of Andhra Pradesh. The contributions of Andhra Religious traditions to Bhakti Movement (Fusion movement for Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist Traditions) inspired numerous world renowned modern secular philosophers like Jiddu Krishnamurti to draw on this rich and progressive intellectual tradition of religion and philosophy. A living history of this rich tradition is daily visible in the lives of the people of this region and historic snap shots are frozen into stone at various times on the walls of these temples: http://www.templenet.com/andhra.html. Telugu arts and literature are an embodiment of this vibrant philosophical tradition.
Outline Map Of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is the 8th biggest, tenth most populous, and 31st most literate state of the 28 states of the democratic Republic of India.
Andhra Pradesh occupied eighth position in life expectancy and tenth in female-to-male sex ratio. Andhra Pradesh is the sixth most media exposed state in India.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Andhra Pradesh:
||No. of Mandals
|Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore