detailed map of Andhra Pradesh and neighboring regions
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Physical Map Of Assam
Assam is a state of India in the north-eastern region. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra Valley and the Barak river valleys along with the Karbi Anglong and the North Cachar Hills with an area of 30,285 square miles (78,438 km²). Assam is surrounded by six of the other Seven Sister States: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya. Geographically Assam and these states are connected to the rest of India via a strip of land in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck". Assam shares international borders with Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh; and cultures, peoples and climate with South-East Asia – elements in India’s Look East policy. Assam became a part of British India after the British occupied the region following the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–1826.
Assam tea is produced here along with petroleum and Assam silk. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the Pygmy hog, tiger and various species of birds. It provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The economy is aided by wildlife tourism while the Kaziranga and the Manas National Parks are designated as World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state, which as a result of rainfall looks green all year round. This rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment.
History Of Assam
Further information: Danava dynasty, Naraka dynasty and Aryan migration to Assam
Assam state and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages, but there are no archeological evidence of bronze- or iron-age culture. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed doleritic basalt useful for tool-making.
According to a late text, Kalika Purana (c.7th–8th AD), the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav of the Danava dynasty, which was removed by Naraka who established his the Naraka dynasty. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta became the king, who, it is mentioned in the Mahabharata, fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast.
Samudragupta's 4th century Pragya inscription mentions Kamarupa (Western Assam) and Davaka (Central Assam)  as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire. Davaka was later absorbed by Kamarupa, which grew into large kingdom that spanned from Karatoya river to Sadiya and covered the entire Brahmaputra valley, North Bengal, Northern Bangladesh and, at times Purnea and parts of West Bengal.
Ruled by three dynasties Varmanas (c.350–650 CE), Mlechchha dynasty (c.655–900 CE) and Kamarupa-Palas (c.900–1100 CE), from their capitals in present-day Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura), Tezpur (Haruppeswara) and North Gauhati (Durjaya) respectively. Country was 10,000 li[clarification needed] in circuit and capital city Pragjyotishpura was about 30 li. Kamrupi kings claims their descent from Narakasura, an immigrant from Aryavarta.
In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskar Varman (c. 600–650 AD), the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was somewhat extended till c. 1255 AD by the Lunar I (c. 1120–1185 AD) and Lunar II (c. 1155–1255 AD) dynasties.
Kareng ghar, the palace of the Ahom kings
Father of the Assamese Nation Xargadeo Chao-lung Siu-ka-phaa (Sukaphaa).
Further information: Kamata kingdom, Ahom kingdom, Kachari kingdom, Sutiya kingdom and Baro-Bhuyan
Two later dynasties, the Ahoms and the Koch. The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) and the Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in western Assam and present North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Naranarayana (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 AD, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Since c. 13th AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended till Karatoya River in the c. 17th–18th AD. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungpha or Sworgodeu Rudra Simha (c. 1696–1714 AD). Among other dynasties, the Sutiya Kingdom ruled north-eastern Assam and parts of present Arunachal Pradesh and the Kacharis ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by c. 1520 AD the Sutiyas areas were annexed and since c. 1536 AD Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar more as an Ahom ally then a competing force. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. Though the Mughals made seventeen attempts to invade they were not successful. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c. 1662–63 AD), the then capital, but found it difficult to control people making guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by the great general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha at Saraighat (1671) had almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. Mughals were finally expelled from Lower Assam during the reign of Gadadhar Singha in 1682 AD.
The discovery of Camellia sinensis in 1834 in Assam was followed by its tests in 1836–37 in London. The British allowed companies to rent land since 1839. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Eastern Assam, where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported laborers from China and hostilities of native Assamese resulted into migration of forced laborers from central-eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable one for Assam. By the 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. Industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during the 1870s.
Despite the commercial success, tea laborers continued to be exploited,[clarification needed] working and living under poor conditions.[clarification needed] Fearful of greater government interference, the tea growers formed the Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby to retain the status quo. The organization was very successful in this, and even after India’s independence, conditions of the laborers have improved very little.
In the later part of the 18th century, religious tensions and atrocities of nobles led to the Moamoria rebellion, resulting in tremendous casualties of lives and property. The rebellion was suppressed but the kingdom was severely weakened by the civil war. Political rivalry between Prime Minister Purnananda Burhagohain and Badan Chandra Borphukan, the Ahom Viceroy of Western Assam, led to the invitation to Burma by the latter, in turn leading to three successive Burmese invasions of Assam. The reigning monarch Chandrakanta Singha tried to check the Burmese invaders but he was defeated after fierce resistance.
A reign of terror was unleashed by the Burmese on the Assamese people, who fled to neighbouring kingdoms and British-ruled Bengal. The Burmese reached the East India Company's borders, and the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, with the Company taking control of Western Assam and installing Purandar Singha as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region.
Initially Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a chief commissioners' province. In 1913, a legislative council and, in 1937, the Assam Legislative Assembly, were formed in Shillong, the erstwhile capital of the region. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas.
After a few initial unsuccessful attempts to free Assam during the 1850s, the Assamese joined and actively supported the Indian National Congress against the British from the early 20th century, with Gopinath Bordoloi emerging as the preeminent nationalist leader in the Assam Congress. Bordoloi's major political rival in this time was Sir Saidullah, who was representing the Muslim League, and had the backing of the influential Muslim cleric Maulana Bhasani.
The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in 1874 as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province .
The Assam Postage Circle was established by 1873 under the headship of the Deputy Post Master General.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. The Assam Province was one among major eight provinces of British India. The table hereafter shows the major original provinces during British India covering the Assam Province under Administrative Office of Chief Commissioner.
The following table lists their areas and populations (but does not include those of the dependent Native States):
With the partition of India in 1947, Assam became a constituent state of India, But the district of Sylhet of Assam (excluding the Karimganj subdivision) gave up to Pakistan (which later became Bangladesh).
The government of India, which has the unilateral powers to change the borders of a state, divided Assam into several states since 1970 to satisfy national aspirations of the tribal populations living within the then borders of then Assam. In 1963 the Naga Hills district became the 16th state of India under the name of Nagaland. Part of Tuensang was added to Nagaland. In 1970, in response to the demands of the tribal peoples of the Meghalaya Plateau, the districts embracing the Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, and Garo Hills were formed into an autonomous state within Assam; in 1972 it became a separate state under the name of Meghalaya. In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh (the North East Frontier Agency) and Mizoram (from the Mizo Hills in the south) were separated from Assam as union territories; both became states in 1986.
The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups like United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnicity based militant groups have grown. Regional autonomy has been ensured for Bodo-Kachari community in Bodoland Territorial Council Areas (BTC), for the Karbis in Karbi Anglong and for the people of Dima Hasao district after agitation of the communities due to sluggish rate of development and general apathy of successive state governments towards indigenous communities.
Since the restructuring of Assam after independence, communal tensions and violence remain there. Separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting into fragmentation of Assam. In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislation making use of the Assamese language compulsory. It was withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitationtriggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighboring Bangladesh and changing the demographics. The agitation ended after an accord between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent.
Geography Map Of Assam
A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India - The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month.Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is an antecedent river, older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long). The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River.
Urban Centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world. Guwahati is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business, education and tourism. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, a oil, natural gas, tea and tourism industry Nagaon, and Jorhat.
With the "Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate", Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar–Apr) and Autumn (Sept–Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam's agriculture usually depends on the South-West monsoon rains.
RailNework Map Of Assam
The Northeast Frontier Railway abbreviated as N F Railway is one of the 17 railway zones in India. Headquartered in Maligaon, Guwahati in the state of Assam it is responsible for rail operations in the entire Northeast and parts of West Bengal and Bihar. It is divided into 5 divisions:
- Alipurdaur Railway Division
- Katihar Railway Division
- Lumding Railway Division
- Rangia Railway Division
- Tinsukia Railway Division
Each of these divisions is headed by a Divisional Railway Manager, a Senior Administrative Grade officer of the rank of Joint Secretary to Government of India.
The departmental setup at headquarters level and divisional setup in the field assists the General Manager in running the railways. Various departments namely engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal & telecom, operations, commercial, safety, accounts, security, personal and medical are headed by a Senior Administrative Grade / Higher Administrative Grade officer, provide technical and operational support to the divisions in train operations.
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
Main article: Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
Darjeeling to Ghoom Heritage Narrow Gauge Train
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) ascends 6,850 feet (2,090 m) from New Jalpaiguri (Siliguri); the climb begins at Sukna, continues uninterruptedly to Ghum (7,407 ft or 2,258 m) and descends the final 5 miles (8.0 km) to Darjeeling. After independence, India's partition resulted in the isolation of the Northeast region. Consequently, the DHR was merged into Assam Railways, it was closed for the construction of the Assam-Bengal link line and one of its extension lines to Kishanganj was converted to metre gauge. DHR's other extension line to Kalimpong got washed away due to floods. On re-opening, the DHR was merged with North Eastern Railway in 1952 and later into Northeast Frontier Railway in 1958.
The DHR achieved worldwide fame for many reasons such as:
- A gateway to the Himalayas
- The tiny four-wheeled steam locomotives of the 19th century
- The curves, loops, "Z"s and steep grades crisscrossing the road
An interest in DHR all along has ensured that it continues to operate notwithstanding very heavy losses. The steam locomotive is an icon of this Railway. Tindharia workshop has kept 13 locomotives surviving, some of which are over 100 years old and the youngest is about 70 years old.
Timeline of DHR:
- January 20, 1948: Purchased by the Government of India
- January 26, 1948: Transferred to Assam Rail Link
- January 26, 1950: Transferred to Assam Railway
- January 14, 1952: Transferred to North Eastern Railway
- January 15, 1958: Transferred to Northeast Frontier Railway
Road Map Of Assam
National Highway 37 is a National Highway in India that runs from Panchratna (near Goalpara) across Assam state to Roing in Arunachal Pradesh. The total length of NH 37 is 740 km (460 mi). It is also known as A.T. (Assam Trunk road) Road in Assam.
National Highway 37 branches off from NH 31 as NH 31B, crosses the Brahmaputra River at Goalpara and traverses the entire width of Assam state along the South of the River. The places along the highway are Guwahati (from where NH 40bifurcates to Shillong), Nagaon (from where NH 36 bifurcates to Dimapur), Jorhat, Sibsagar, Dinjan, Dibrugarh and Tinsukia. This national highway number 37 passes through Kaziranga National Park in the state of Assam, and ends near Roing in the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
National Highway 37 also connects the Asian Highway 1 from Numaligarh passing through Kaziranga and Nagaon to Guwahati. This route is 'Wide Two Lane' from Numaligarh to Nagaon and 'Four Lane' from Nagaon to Guwahati.
Air Network Map Of Assam
Tezpur Airport (IATA: TEZ, ICAO: VETZ) is located in Tezpur in the state of Assam, India. It is also known as Salonibari Airport based on the village/township of Salonibari where it is located
The airfield in Tezpur was constructed by the British Royal Indian Air Force during World War II in 1942. It was used by the United States Army Air Forces Tenth Air Force as a B-24 Liberator heavy bomber base by the 7th Bombardment Group. After the war, it was subsequently developed into a full-fledged air force base in 1959. Since its inception, it has been one of the most active bases in the Northeast of India with a variety of fixed and rotary wing aircraft operating from there.
The first aircraft that flew at this base were Vampires and Toofani 101 reconnaissance squadron. In fact, in the last 25 years, it was home to the IAF MiG-21 fleet which was used extensively to train rookie pilots for the Indian Air Force. The aircraft continues to serve the air force, operating from other bases in the Northeast.
Airlines and destinations
|Air India Regional
Business And Economy Map Of Assam
The origin of the name of Assam, a state in India is unclear—among the competing theories, two attribute it to the terrain, whereas the others relate it to the Ahom people. Whatever the source of the English name, Assam is itself an anglicization
The land referred to as Pragjyotisha in the Mahabharata is now accepted as present-day Assam and North Bengal. In the Bhismaparvan, the Pragjyotisha king Bhagadatta is said to have joined the Kurukshetra war with an army of kirata and cinas. Since the name China is derived from the Qin Dynasty (221 BCE - 206 BCE), the reference cannot be dated to earlier than the third century BCE. In the Ramayana, Pragjyotisha is situated on the Varaha mountain and not in present-day Assam; According to Shastri (2002), the author "had no idea at all of its location and was just eager to refer to it as it had already become a celebrated town". (Shafer 1954) believes the center of the Pragjyotisha state was in upper Punjab that moved to Assam in the post epic period.
The Kamarupa kings called themselves the Maharajadhiraja of Pragjyotisha. One of the kings Vaidyadeva, referred to Pragjyotisha as a bhukti and Kamarupa as a mandala (a smaller division, possibly within Pragjyotisha).
The earliest epigraphic mention of the Assam region comes from the Samudragupta's Allahabad stone pillar from fourth century CE, where it is called Kamarupa. The pillar lists the frontier kingdoms (pratyanta nripati) and lists Kamarupa (Western Assam) along with Davaka, a region in the central Assam (undivided Nagaon district). Therefore, during the fourth century, the eastern boundary of the Kamarupa did not extend beyond west Assam. The Kalika Purana and the Yogini Tantra refer to Kamarupa as a kingdom from Karatoya in the west to Dikkaravasini in the east. Dikkaravasini is identified with present-day Sadiya. The copper-plate inscription from Vaidyadeva calls Kamarupa a mandala within his own kingdom. Later epigraphic sources from Assam call the kingdom Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa. In the early twelfth century, epigraphic sources from the Pala dynasty mention Kamarupa as a mandala of the kingdom they ruled. The invasion of western Assam by Allauddin Hussein of Gaur up to Barnadi river in 1498 is recorded in coins from the early sixteenth century, declaring Hussein as the conqueror of Kamru (Kamrup) (and not Assam).
Asam and variations
Assam, Asam and other variations started appearing in relatively recent times, and their uses cannot be attributed to any period earlier than the sixteenth century. The names appeared primarily in three different scripts: the Assamese, Persian and the Roman scripts. The sixteenth century is the period when Srimanta Sankardeva established his Ekasarana Dharma. This was accompanied by a profusive production in literature. At the same time, Vishwa Singha established the Koch kingdom in the west and the Ahom kingdom saw both a rapid expansion in territory and an increasing Hindu and Assamese influence in its court under Suhungmung. This increased prominence of the Ahom kingdom brought it to the attention of those outside the Brahmaputra valley.
||Bhagavata of Sankadeva
||early 16th century
||late 16th century
|Āsām, Āsam, Asam
||Joh van Leenen
||John Baptiste Tavernier
||A Geographical Account of Countries around Bay of Bengal
||CP grant of Rajeswar Singha
||CP grant of Lakshmi Singha
||"A Geographical Sketch of Assam"
||Treaty of Yandabo
||North East India (Minus Tripura and Manipur)
Culture Of Andhra Pradesh
Asama: from Sanskrit
Two different meanings of the Sanskrit word Asama have been used to explain the name: one meaning "uneven" (terrain) and the other "unequaled".
Gait (1906) reports that according to some people, the name "Assam" is derived from the Sanskrit asama, meaning "uneven" which describes the terrain of the region in contrast to the flat plains of Samatata, though he rejects this explanation on the grounds that the word was never used before the advent of the Ahoms and that the Vamshavali of the Darrang kings used it to refer to the Ahom community and not to the land.
The second theory Gait reported is that Asama, meaning "unequal" or "peerless", was a name the local people gave the undefeated Ahoms, according to a tradition that the Ahoms themselves believed in. Gait rejects this notion as well, noting that the local tribal people would not have given a Sanskrit name to the invaders.
Though Gait rejects both these explanations, he nevertheless asserts that the name is somehow associated with the Ahoms. George Grierson, Banikanta Kakati, and Dimbeswar Neog, also reject the Sanskrit origin of the name. Satyendra Nath Sharma accepts Banikanta Kakati's view in toto.
Though both explanations have been rejected in the academic literature, the notion that the name Assam has a Sanskrit origin continues to hold sway in popular perceptions, due mainly to two standard dictionaries of Assamese: Hemkox and Chandrakanta Abhidhan. The Hemkox forwards the second theory, associating the name to the meaning "unequaled".
A-Sham: from the name Sham
Gait reports that some associated the name with the Shan who are called Syam by the Assamese, an explanation which he found not convincing. nevertheless Grierson has accepted that the 13th century natives of Assam called the Shan (Sham) invaders by this name. Dimbeswar Neog notes that the Indic prefix a- does not necessarily mean an antonym in Assamese and it could just be a synonym (e.g. kumari/akumari, bihane/abihane), a feature that is also seen in Sanskrit (sur/asur); therefore, Asham could mean the same as Sham, and the name could be derived as Sham .Amalendu Guha, too derives it from Sham; but instead of using an Indo-Aryan rule, derives it from the Bodo form, Ha-Sham, meaning the land of the Sham people. Masica too believes that Assam derives from an earlier attested form of asam, acam which in turn is from a Burmese corruption of the name Shan/Shyam
Assam has rich tradition of performing arts. Ankia Naat (Onkeeya Naat) is a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama (Bhaona) form popular since 15th century AD It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a Sutradhar (Xutrodhar) keeps on telling the story.
Besides Bihu dance and Huchory performed during the Bohag Bihu, many dance forms of tribal minorities such as; Kushan nritra of Rajbongshi's, Bagurumba and Bordoicikhla dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, Banjar Kekan performed during Chomangkan by Karbis are some of the major folk dances. Sattriya (Sotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta’s Bhortal Nritya, Deodhoni Nritya, Ojapali, Beula Dance, Ka Shad Inglong Kardom, Nimso Kerung, etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam with immense popularity of many large theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Srimanta Sankardev, Abahan, Bhagyadevi, Hengul, Rajmahal, Itihas etc.
Outline Map Of Assam